这篇评论文章最初发表于 Eurogas” 通讯，2021年6月17日.
More than a year after a pandemic brought global economies to a halt, 世界各地的许多社区仍然步履蹒跚. Today, we are facing two formidable challenges: a post-COVID recovery and a climate crisis. Both require international cooperation and the acceleration to cleaner, 经济可靠的能源系统. With the United States re-joining the Paris Agreement, expanding cooperation between the U.S. and Europe holds renewed promise for greater alignment with other regions of the world as well as critical new innovations in the production, 交通运输和能源消费.
但《竞博jbo体育官网》只是个开始. Addressing the interconnected global challenges of reducing carbon emissions, 确保清洁能源的获取, and improving food and water security will require a collaborative, 系统整体方法. Addressing one challenge at a time can exacerbate others and perpetuate rather than prevent the dangers of climate change.
The priority action that has broad political and commercial appeal not only in prosperous nations, 在发展中国家也是如此, is to produce more energy for more people with lower carbon content.
The development of cleaner and affordable energy overcomes one of the most fundamental flaws with climate proposals: single-country solutions. The International Energy Agency (IEA) concluded in its 2021 世界能源展望 这种单边做法不会奏效. “在缺乏更大的国际合作的情况下, it will take several decades longer to reach net-zero emissions globally,国际能源署总干事比罗尔说. 事实上, in the absence of commercially viable solutions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 中国, 印度和其他发展中经济体经历了1.5 percent increase in emissions per year in the four years following the signing of the Paris Agreement.
还有另一条前进的道路. 美国.S., which has long recognized that energy security is vital to national security, offers a case study on how to lower carbon emissions while fueling economic growth. 国际能源机构的 2020年世界能源展望 注意到美国.S. led the world in the largest reduction of man-made GHG emissions over the last 20 years (down almost 1 gigaton from a 2000 peak). Expanding investments in renewable power generation while using abundant 天然气 (with its lower emissions footprint) precipitated a dramatic decline in coal’s share of U.S. 发电.
在短短12年里, coal-fired power generation went from providing nearly half of America’s energy to less than 22 percent. Even more remarkable is that these reductions took place at the same time as significant economic expansion and rising energy demand. By diversifying its energy supply to include lower- and zero-carbon fuels, the U.S. was able to ramp up 发电 to support a doubling of its GDP while effectively 降低人为排放. 其他国家可以复制这种成功. The impact of displacing coal was made even more clear in the recent Group of Seven (G7) call to halt all government support for the use of coal in power production.
The European Union’s (EU) commitment to energy diversification has yielded similar achievements. As the biggest importer of 天然气 in the world, the EU has been a leader in the development of 液化天然气 (液化天然气), its associated infrastructure and the creation of liquid and transparent 天然气 markets. 最近的一次 S&普氏能源资讯报道 noted how Europe is steadily cementing a key leadership role in the global 液化天然气 trade: “Today, 谈到欧洲天然气供应的未来, 液化天然气 is firmly viewed as a core part of the supply stack; critical to meeting long-term demand,文章说。.
不再依赖少数占主导地位的供应商, diversification of the EU’s 天然气 supplies and a notable uptick in U.S. 液化天然气 imports has also supported market competitiveness and set the stage for maximizing further renewable penetration.
Over the next two decades, the greatest challenge lies outside the U.S. 和欧盟. 国际能源机构预测新兴和发展中经济体, 包括中国, will account for 90 percent of the growth in global GHG emissions. This projection highlights why access to affordable and diverse energy supplies is essential to 减少碳排放 同时支持稳定繁荣的经济. The growth of affordable renewable energy in these markets will help but ultimately only meet about 28 percent of the world’s total energy demand by 2050.
此外, 对于天然气产量下降的国家, 液化天然气 offers an important way to continue expanding renewable energy. 美国.S. 和欧盟 are poised to achieve quick wins for the climate by displacing coal and oil with 天然气 not just in 电网也包括制造业和其他行业 hard-to-decarbonize 行业. 聪明,新 基础设施投资 that enable these GHG reductions today will also propel tomorrow’s energy technologies. 在地平线上是一个 氢 economy that can be powered with cleaner molecules as emerging technologies come online.
This is the decisive decade for tackling climate change, and 我们是乐观的. Just as the rapid development of vaccines was foundational to overcoming the global pandemic, clean and adoptable energy solutions are essential to attacking the threat from climate change, while also overcoming other interconnected challenges to global security and prosperity. 总之, it is not a Hobson’s choice between economic growth and sustainable initiatives to mitigate climate change. Leadership and international cooperation with the right priorities can advance energy security, 经济繁荣和环境改善.